Laboratorio di Aerodynamica delle costruzioni e dell'ambiente
Institute for Hydromechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Tel.:  +49 (0)721 608 43897


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Obiettivi delle ricerche
Impianti sperimentali
Sistemi di misurazione
Simulazioni numeriche
Centro di ricerca
Risultati delle ricerche
Viaggiare da noi
Literatura
   
Data base VIPAS  new
Data base CODASC
Data base backward facing step
-  Effetti del vento sulle strutture
   tecniche e naturali
-  Analisi dei danni a causa del vento

-  Quantificazione delle pressioni, degli
   spostamenti, delle vibrazioni

-  Quantificazione
del campo di flusso
   eseguita ad alta frequenza nel tempo
   e nello spazio
-  Misure della diffusione di inquinanti

-  Pro
gnosi dell’effetto del vento


VW-wind tunnel

Links*
Maximum gusts (Europe)
Thunderstorms
Forest fire warning
Global information
Cedim Center for Disaster Management and Risk
     Reduction
Technology
LGU media information

Lezioni

  Building Aerodynamics
 
Environmental Aerodynamics
 Measuring Techniques in Fluid Mechanics
Direttore
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h.c. Bodo Ruck
Tel.: + 49 721 608-43897
ruck@kit.edu

Laboratory of Building- and Environmental
Aerodynamics
Institute for Hydromechanics
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
Kaiserstr. 12
76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
http://www.windforschung.de

Football stadium in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel
Links*
National Hurricane Center
Tornado Project     
Tornados

TORRO - Tornado and Storm Research  
TorDACH 
Tropical stormsl
Hurricane and Extreme Storms Impact Studies

NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric

     Research
 

Wind comfort in city centers, flow from left; (CFD-Flovent)

Goettinger wind tunnel

Flow around a roadster (1:1 model in wind tunnel) 
Lecture:
Aerodynamics of cars

 

Flow across rows of solar collectors on industrial roofs      © B.Ruck  
Interaction of gusts with forest edges  (wind from southwest)                                                                                                                                Courtesy of © 2007 GeoContent (www.geocontent.de)
 
Laboratorio

Il laboratorio di ingegneria del vento è un centro di Ricerca di Aerodinamica per investigare gli effetti del vento nell’ambiente e sulle strutture tecniche e naturali (edifici alti, ponti di grande luce, torri snelle, strutture naturali e flessibili come alberi, bosci, campi di grano etc.).

Storia
Questo laboratorio è stato istituito nel 1973 ed è stato completato nel 1998 con la fusione di tutte le gallerie del vento della Facoltà d’Ingeneria Civile di Karlsruhe.   Attualmente è l'unica struttura del genere esistente in Germania con 4 gallerie del vento per la simulazione dei processi naturali dello strato limite atmosferico.

Modo di procedere
Normalamente la ricerca è eseguito coi modelli delle strutture investigate. Per indagare gli effetti del vento bisogna riprodurre le caratteristiche di rugosità della superficie terrestre e simulare le caratteristiche dello strato limite con il profilo di velocità e di turbolenza del flusso. Tutto questo è fatto nelle gallerie del vento. Certamente, ci sono condizioni di similarità fisica con il flusso atmosferico che garantiscono la validità dei resultati.

Grandezze di oggetto delle misurazioni:
Oggi, la corretta quantificazione delle pressioni, degli spostamenti, delle vibrazioni, delle concentrazioni degli inquinanti è essenziale per la valutazione degli effetti del vento.

Misure di pressione
L'analisi delle azioni del vento su molte strutture richiede la misurazione delle pressioni su modelli "rigidi" o su modelli "flessibili". Le pressioni vengono misurate attraverso collegamenti pneumatici tra i punti di misura ed i trasduttori, che convertono la pressione in segnale elettrico; i dati, convertiti in digitale, vengono acquisiti attraverso PC. I trasduttori di pressione utilizzati sono miniaturizzati e permettono l'alloggiamento all'interno del modello. Essi consentendo l'acquisizione simultanea ad alta frequenza di un numero elevato di dati, sufficienti a riprodurre le caratteristiche istantanee del campo di pressione intorno al corpo.

Visualizzazioni di flusso
Le tecniche di visualizzazione permettono una visione qualitativa del campo di flusso attorno ad un ostacolo. Inseminando il flusso con un tracciante e rendendolo visibile tramite una sottile lama di luce di laser (laser light sheet tecnique) consente la visualizzazione delle strutture di flusso localizzate nella posizione voluta sul modello. I traccianti attualmente impiegati in galleria sono costituiti da fumo ottenuto per vaporizzazione di oli.

Misure di forze, spostamenti e vibrazioni
Tramite l'utilizzo di trasduttori di forza, spostamenti ed accelerazioni, è possibile quantificare tutte le azioni che concorrono all´aerodinamica di un modello rigido o aeroelastico. È quindi possibile misurare le forze statiche attraverso l'utilizzo di celle di carico opportunamente posizionate all'interno della galleria. Le forze dinamiche, su modelli aeroelastici e non, vengono acquisite attraverso bilance estensimetriche ed accelerometri.

Misure di campi di velocità e turbolenza
Le misure di velocità e di turbolenza vengono effettuate con la tecnica LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) o la tecnica PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). Le due tecniche usano la luce di un laser per misurare senza contatto fisico le caratteristiche del flusso. Le misurazioni vengono eseguite ad alta frequenza del tempo e con alta precisione nello spazio. Per misurare la velocità e le grandezze della turbolenza, viene anche utilizzata l'anemometria a filo caldo. In pratica, con le tecniche dell’anemometria è possibile analizzare puntualmente o nell’area di studio le caratteristiche del flusso, sia in termini di velocità media che di fluttuazioni.

Misure della diffusione di inquinanti
L’inquinamento ambientale è in costante aumento, e lo studio della dispersione di inquinanti gassosi emessi in atmosfera da sorgenti di vario tipo (ciminiere, impianti di produzione di energia e complessi industriali) è un problema di grande importanza. Tramite opportune regole di scalatura, la galleria del vento permettono la simulazione della dispersione attorno agli edifici posti nelle vicinanze delle sorgenti di inquinanti. La strumentazione utilizzata prevede un sistema di immissione di gas e un analizzatore a ionizzazione di fiamma (FID). Il gas funziona come un tracciante e i campioni di gas vengono prelevati da vari punti della sezione di prova ed inviati sequenzialmente all'analizzatore che permette di valutare la concentrazione media di tracciante dei campioni.


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